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Since before independence in the early 1960's, the countries in the Great Lakes Region of Africa have been hit by recurring cycles of violence. The only exception to this has been Tanzania which has had numerous free, transparent elections and no military involvement in government. Kenya has had many incidences of ethnic violence, the most serious being in
1991-92 in the Rift Valley when the government turned a blind eye to attempts to evict Kenyans from other areas of the country from that province. This is the type of violence that tends to escalate unless preventive measures are taken during the times between episodes of violence.

The current problems in Burundi began in 1993 when the democratically elected Hutu president was assassinated by members of the Tutsi military. A low level civil war continued through 2003 with an estimated 300,000 deaths. While a new democratically elected government has been installed, one rebel group still continues its violent campaign. After numerous cycles of violence by the Rwandan Hutu government against the minority Tutsi in the country, in April 1994, one hundred days of genocide killed an estimated 850,000 Tutsi and moderate Hutu. When those
responsible for the genocide fled to the Congo (then know as Zaire"), they forced almost two million Hutu to accompany them.

In 1996 Rwanda invaded the Congo to force the return of the refugees and the disarming/death of those responsible for the genocide. This began the first Congo War which quickly led to the overthrow of President Mobutu, installed in the early sixties by the US Government and other western powers and noted for stealing most of the money in the country. When the new Congolese Government turned against their Rwandan allies in
1998, Rwanda and Uganda again invaded the Congo (now officially the" Democratic Republic of the Congo") beginning the second Congo War. Soon Burundi, Chad, Zimbabwe, and Angola were also involved. While the various armies have since been withdrawn, proxy rebel groups have been armed by the various factions. The central Congolese Government one thousand miles away in Kinshasa has had little authority in the region. While there is a UN peacekeeping force in the Congo (which is the size of the eastern United States), their number is inadequate to halt the violence. An estimated 4,000,000 have perish during these conflicts in eastern Congo, the largest number of deaths in any conflict since World War II. The conflict continues.

In Northern Uganda, the Lord's Resistance Army has been attacking civilians in the area for twenty years, abducting children to become child soldier or domestic/sex slaves. Over a million people have been internally displaced into IDP camps where conditions are atrocious.