Planting the Tree of Peace among Enemies
By Anna Crumley-Effinger
new to me. I had heard enough of it from my father. My father,
being a busy pastor and a volunteer with AVP, always tried
to show love and I had never seen him violent. I admired him but
I never thought I would be like him. I was violent, and always underestimated
what my father did. I always thought if you are too good people will
call you a coward.
Seconds after completing the first workshop, I was on board a vehicle
headed back home. Suddenly I thought about myself, my family, my
society and my country. I seemed to sense violence everywhere; AVP
had opened my heart. The poverty in Goma was very visible. Yet all
this was as a result of war which has now claimed five million lives.
Tin houses and poorly built houses could be seen. The roads were
very poor either due to neglect or vandalism. I thought about the
ill-clothed children, the policemen harassing an alleged criminal
and the power in me seemed to lose sway.
Then I thought about Rwanda. I started to see the real picture.
More harm than good. One million had died within three months;
many displaced and as a result dead in the bushes of Congo (a foreign
country). Then I thought of AVP. Something reminded me of a good
future, promised me light beyond a dark tunnel; and, that was the
There is good everywhere in both the gentle and the rude. Good
is more than evil and peace will prevail over violence. Today I
feel different and a greater pacifist than I was. So much thanks
A Young Rwandan
The Historical Context:
Goma, North Kivu, Democratic Republic of Congo (DRC) and Gisenyi,
Rwanda are border towns on the northern edge of Lake Kivu. After
years of civil war, population displacement, refugees from the
1994 genocide in Rwanda, armies and militias – some backed
by the two governments and others by local leaders — and
fighting; they have a difficult, inter-connected history. The area
has many tribes and language groups; the Hunde, Tembo, Nunde and
Nyanga are thought to be the indigenous tribes. Additionally there
are groups that speak Kinyarwanda, the language of the Rwandan
population. The addition of Tutsi and Hutu expatriates from Rwanda
has added great tension in earlier periods of Rwandan exile and
more recently with refugee population of almost two million people
following the 1994 genocide.
During the Belgium time there were not many people in what is now
the Masisi area, about 50 kilometers from Goma. The Hunde people
moved into this area. In the 20th century as the crowding in Rwanda
increased, Kinyarwandan speaking groups started moving into the Masisi
area which has been the center of much of the conflict in North Kivu.
After awhile there were more people of Rwandan descent than of the
earlier settling Hunde people. The Hunde began to worry that there
could be an uprising by the majority population so they began a campaign
against the Kinyarwandan speaking peoples. Due to the violence against
them, many of the Rwandan population began returning to Rwanda. During
the early part of the reign of Sese Seko Mobutu, 1971-1997, the violence
by the Hunde was stopped by government military force. The people
of the towns began living together. The influx of vast numbers of
Rwandan Hutu refugees in July 1994 exasperated tensions in the province.
A number of legislators from the eastern Congo got a law passed that
said that people who were not in the DRC (at that time Zaire) before
1886 were not citizens of the State. The effect was the stripping
of nationality from most of the Kinyarwandan speaking population.
This led a Kinyarwandan
speaking group, the Bamyamulenge from South Kivu, to revolt in
1996. With the help of Rwandan and Ugandan armies,
Mobutu was ousted and Laurent-Désiré Kabila became
president of the DRC. Kabila later became at odds with his Rwandan
and Ugandan backers and ousted them from the Congolese government
and army. This led to the second Congo War with Rwandan, Ugandan,
and local Congolese militia fighting the Congolese army and militias
supported by Zimbabwe, Angola, and Chad. Over four million people
are estimated to have died in these wars which lasted officially
until 2003; but the many militias have continued to exist and to
destabilize the region. These militias support themselves by looting
the considerable resources of the eastern Congo. Essentially, North
Kivu province has not seen a functional government since the early
The goal of the workshops was to bring together people from these
two antagonistic countries in cross-border peacemaking. The Gisenyi/Goma
workshops served eighty people in the bordering towns between the
DRC and Rwanda. Each workshop had around twenty participants, equally
spilt on gender lines and border lines. First, two basic workshops
took place in Goma (10-12 July and 13-15 July) followed by an advanced
workshop (17-19 July) in Gisenyi. Later two basics (25-27 July
and 3-5 August) took place in Gisenyi followed by an advanced (8-10
August) in Goma.
Two Rwandans and two Congolese were workshop facilitators for all
of the basic workshops with separate interpreters. Advanced workshops
diverged from the model because the necessary qualifications of experienced
advanced facilitators prevented having Congolese facilitators.
The participants were in being a diverse group of students, pastors,
a doctor, and program administrators, including someone who works
with former military youth. Therefore, in addition to bringing two
communities together, the program also served as bridge builder between
different parts of society.
The Challenge of Language:
Language is a challenge and continues to be of the utmost importance
because access to language is also a symbol of status and privilege.
In Rwanda, Kinyarwanda is the local language; most Rwandans do
not know Swahili. In North Kivu, while each tribe speaks its own
local language, Swahili is the language of general communication.
Only Congolese of Rwandan background are able to speak Kinyarwandan.
While French is the European language common to both countries,
only the well-educated speak it fluently. Therefore it was essential
to have an interpreter and to write everything in both Swahili
We are neighbors, in neighboring countries, and I was not comfortable
mixing up with them because I used to feel that we are different
from each other. After the first workshop I realized we are all
the same people— they are just like me. We are all the same
even though we come from different tribes, regions or countries.
Personally I feel now I have to make a decision of how we can both
all live together in peace whereby I can avoid anything that will
hurt the Congolese and they can avoid anything that will hurt the
Rwandan so that we can all live in peace. The issue of looking
at somebody and saying that we are not the same is no longer there.
Sometimes in life you go through difficulties and you feel that
all the problems are overwhelming and you are not free, but due
to the training, I feel that my burdens have been lifted and I
Looking back at the situation that happened between Rwandese and
Congolese, they were living in a complete division. But due to the
training we have received we can now live together as brothers and
sisters. And now we have Congolese coming from Congo to Rwanda, and
other groups from Rwanda going to Congo.
What do you remember most about AVP?
The fact of bringing Congolese and Rwandese together. As you
can see the Rwandese and Congolese do not get along with each other.
And this workshop they have taught us how to be patient with each
other, how to carry each others’ burden and how to live with
each other, forgiving each other because we are all the same.
the Congolese of Goma and the Rwandans of Gisenyi very much affected
each participant’s perception of the other
group. Beforehand they described the other as enemies, as groups
that didn’t like each other. They came away from the workshops
saying that they had come to realize that they were all the same,
that they could be patient with each other and understand each other.
It was particularly telling that in many of the interviews participants
responded to the very first question, “What do you remember
most about your AVP workshop?” by citing the bringing together
of Congolese and Rwandans. This was no longer the case with people
who continued on to the advanced workshop. By the advanced training
less was said about the two groups and participants had to be specifically
asked about the make up of the group to respond about the relationship
between the Congolese and the Rwandans.
Recommendations for the future:
I didn’t have any bad impressions because before the war Rwanda
was a good friend to the Congo. Rwandans were living in Congo and
we were living as brothers and sisters. Only one thing brought a
problem, and it was due to the leadership of our country, the politicians.
We the common people do not have a problem. - Congolese participant
AVP Gisenyi/Goma was the beginning of an important initiative; but
it was only the beginning. For these communities to become closer
together a wider and more encompassing program has to take place.
Many participants suggested that politicians need AVP, but also the
power of citizens to come together and build friendships between
communities will most certainly aid in the relations between Goma/Gisenyi.
Many participants talked about sharing the AVP lessons with family,
neighbours, and church groups. It is important that there are more
people adequately trained. People also had visions of AVP moving
from the cities into the villages where they think more conflict
David Bucura, from Rwanda, plans to organize AVP workshops with Rwandan
and North Kivu leadership. AGLI’s workcamp in Rwanda this
summer will begin the construction of a peace center in Gisenyi
near the border between Congo and Rwanda.
As we passed around the room, person after person responded
that they wanted to share what they had learned in AVP with their
their children, their husband or wife. They wanted to learn more
and share with as many people as possible these concepts that helped
them to make something of the tribalism around them that causes
death and pain— the nurse at the hospital that does violence
to her patient with inattention or assumption of condition, the
rumors about family members that placed them in prison for years
in poor conditions with only knowing people in high places to get
them out, relations with house workers or kids who are adopted
and then abused, for the pastor helping to solve conflict between
members of the church, understanding how we cause violence to each
other, how violence is rooted in our relationships, our cultures,
our communities, our families.
The energy in the room surged, like the long florescent lights
that dim and get brighter as the electrical current fades in and
This group, that had been together for a relatively inconsequential
amount of time, was at its peak. All the lessons and practice of
having to be called upon and acknowledge your preceding speaker was
suspended. In listening was suspended as arms and voices jumped into
the air. They were responding to the question of what groups are
oppressed, voices quickly – prisoners, the poor, unemployed,
orphans – people were speaking out of their own lives. It was
the exercise entitled “Speak Out”; a chance to tell your
story. You have the floor for those minutes. You are the one, with
a support person joining you on either side, to talk through your
experience. Much had already transformed in the room, beyond the
symbolic moving of table with chairs, to the tables at the end of
the room and the chairs in a large circle. Soon stories and experiences
were filling each of those chairs. Some experiences that were just
beginning to heal helped along by the lessons of AVP. But it was
not the experiences and the stories that were transforming by the
miraculous magical power of AVP; it was the hearts and minds of people
opening themselves up to the transformation. The changes were not
inconsequential. In an interview, a young man in his twenties explained
to me that after the last day of AVP he had gone to someone who had
wronged him and forgiven. He was working to teach his father the
lessons of AVP that had enabled him to do that, hoping his father
might also someday forgive. Another young woman spoke about her families’ home
being hit by a bomb, holding up her finger and covering her eye,
she explained her mother’s loss. The family lived in town and
she had gone to forgive them for that wrong.